Since the 1960’s african countries has been trying to define or seek answers to the problem of underdevelopment. Many scholars have strived to seek answers to why Africa had remained underdeveloped?, what is the cause of Africa underdevelopment how can Africa achieve development? These questions are what this paper seek to solve by analyzing the opinions of diverse scholars on Africa development to understand and discover who or what underdeveloped Africa and how Africa can achieve it development.
Modernization theory of W.W ROSTOW
For  Rostow he is of the view that development is a gradual stage by stage process it involve the transitioning of a society from one stage to another; from traditional society to a modern society for him Europeans did not in anyway underdeveloped Africa rather showing the african society the shadow of it future. He categorized development(modernization) into five different stages
*TRADITIONAL STAGE: An agricultural based society this is when mankind start to realize his surroundings and develop initiative to plant and rear animals for his needs rather than live on what nature provide. This era is characterized by substience farming

PRE-CONDITION FOR TAKE OFF: characterized by an abundance of entrepreneur activity this thus is a result of man’s expanding initiative, man has been able to readapt and recreate from nature. there is high craftsmanship new ideas and innovations development of science and technology.
TAKE-OFF STAGE : this is a period of rapid economic growth and expansion in productivity.
DRIVE TO MATURITY: Economic development becomes more consistence .
HIGH MASS PRODUCTION: Man in this stage has transformed to produce in high quantity more than he and his society need.
Another theory has to determine the reason why a segment of the world is developing and a segment is still struggling to stand on its feet is the DEPENDENCY THEORY this arose in the 1950’s as scholars tries to understand and find reasons why economic growth in industrialized countries do not necessarily lead to growth in the poorer countries ( east asia Africa and latin America), their studies suggested that economic activities in the richer countries often led to serious economic problem  in poorer countries. Their initial explanation for the phenomenon was that poorer countries export primary commodities ( raw materials) who then manufactured products out of these commodities and sold them back to the poorer countries. The value added by manufacturing a usable  product always cost more than the primary product used to create those product therefore the poorer countries would not earn enough from their export earnings to pay for their imports. This theory made us understand the over-reliance of the less developed countries(LDC) on the developed countries is as a result of the inability of the LDC  to transform their primary product into finished product therefore making them depend on the develop nations which increase their imports more than their export therefore making them economic stagnant. Another to this is the exploitative techniques of the develop countries over the less develop countries in aspect of their resources.

RAGNAR NURSKE Another scholar attempt to look it in another way that the reason for underdevelopment of the Less Developed countries is as a result of their poverty level In what he called VICIOUS CIRCLE OF POVERTY. according to Ragnar Nurske a society is poor because it is poor. A society with low income has both levels of savings and low levels of consumption. The low levels of savings means no investment, while the low levels of consumption means not enough market to induce investment-that is, even if the capital for investment were available. This low investment in turn means little ability of the society to expand its productive capacity or transform the quality of the productive forces as a whole. This finally leads to a continuation of low incomes in the economy and then circle
begins again. In summary what Nurske is trying to explain is that Less Developed Countries earn so little which makes them to have low savings and In turn unable to invest big and due to this there isn’t enough for them to consume and produce little for the economy.

According to Nurske one of the important reasons the backward countries have been prevented from enjoying the stimulating effect on the manufacturing industry is not the wickedness of foreign capitalist and their exclusive concern with raw material supplies, but merely the limitation of the domestic market for the manufacturing articles.

CONCLUSION:  From what all the above scholars and group of thought has stated about development  we are to understand that development is a gradual process it doesn’t just happen overnight the developed countries we see today all in the past have been much more less develop than we are but evolve and transform in time. From what Rostow said , Africa is on the process of development it has to overcome the stages for it to acclaim development no one has underdeveloped us in Africa, Africa is just not there yet. To support this from what Nurske is saying we are underdeveloped because we are yet to produce in quantity which is more than enough for us which will mean expansion in our market sales which thus will increase our earning to increase our savings and investment and producing in large quantity will increase our consumption. there is a relationship between what Nurske and Rostow are saying Rostow acclaim that there has to be high mass production in development process and Nurske to him we have to produce more to be more developed this shows that in development high mass production is an important element/indicator of development. This is true in that the Developed countries of today all produce in high mass.
The dependency theory on the other hand shows us the influence of the Developed countries over our development it shows the exploitative method they use to get our raw materials and selling back to us at high price finished goods. This shows our over reliance of Africa over the developed countries for finished goods has made us unable to develop initiative to expand our market and produce more
  With all this it is save to say no one underdeveloped Africa though the colonialist exploitation of our resources (human and materials) cannot be taken lightly but it also did good by jumpstarting our development making us realize to leave the traditional society.
SOLUTION: the only solution Africa need is to reduce it dependency over develop contries for finished goods and develop initiative to transform our raw materials to finished good here in Africa to increase our productivity so as to earn more save more invest more consume more and develop more.                            

WRITTEN BY @olatoye Michael

Contact : +2348132939697
Email:  michaelolatoye1@gmail.com


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